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Fundus photography (also known fundography) is the making of a photograph of the inner surface of the eye, including the retina, optic disc, optic nerve, macula, and posterior pole (i.e. the fundus).

Fundus photography is used by ophthalmologists, optometrists and trained medical specialists for monitoring development of a disease, diagnosis of a disease (sometimes shared with retinal angiography), or with screening programs and epidemiology.

Compared to ophthalmoscopy, fundus photography generally needs a significantly larger instrument, but now has the advantage of availing the image to be examined by an ophthalmic specialist at another location and/or time, as well as providing photo documentation for future reference. Modern fundus photographs generally recreate significantly larger areas of the fundus than what can be seen at any time with handheld ophthalmoscopes.

Atlas of Fundus Fluorescein Angiography


Written by one of the world's leading ophthalmologists

Atlas of Fundus Photo

Atlas of Fundus Fluorescein Angiography

Atlas of Fundus Florescein Angiography provides a comprehensive look at fluorescein angiographic findings in different disorders. Covering technique and methodology, the atlas provides the foundation needed to incorporate this discipline into ophthalmic evaluations.

Fundus photography documents the retina, the neurosensory tissue in our eyes which interprets the optical images we see into the electrical signals our brain understands. The retina can be photographed directly as the pupil is used as a passage both an entrance and exit for the fundus camera's illuminating and imaging light rays. The patient sits comfort at the fundus camera with their chin in a chin rest and their forehead against the bar and bend the head with a strap belt. An ophthalmic photographer focuses and aligns the fundus camera. A flash fires as the photographer pressing the shutter release, shoot a fundus photograph like the picture in gallery. Ophthalmologists use these retinal photographs to monitor, diagnose, and treat eye diseases.

A fundus camera is a specialized low power microscope with an attached digital camera. Its optical design is based on the indirect ophthalmoscope. Fundus cameras are described by the various angle of view - the optical angle of acceptance of the lens. An angle of 30°, considered the normal angle of view, generates a film image 2.5 times larger than life. Wide angle fundus cameras capture images between 45° and 140° and provide respectively less retinal magnification. A narrow angle fundus camera has an angle of view of 20° or less.

Since the instruments are complex in design and difficult to manufacture to clinical standards, only a few manufacturers play production role: Topcon, Zeiss, Canon, Nidek, Kowa, CSO and CenterVue.